The Bay of Hadibo as seen by the Portuguese in 1541 (Reproduced by kind permission of the British Library, Department of Manuscripts), with the plain and the Haghier mountains behind. Clearly shown on the left are a church at Suq and a fort on the beach guarding the inlet, and buildings on the right depict Hadibo with palms which border Wadi Manifoh. People have inhabited the islands for over 2 000 years, however only few details are known on the early history of colonisation.
1. The Socotra Archipelago
map showing position of the Socotra Archipelago.
2. The area, as seen from an US Satellite (Reproduced by kind permission of U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Socotra Archipelago is an eastern continuation of the Somali Peninsula and lies along the East-West Rift of the Gulf of Aden, geographically and geologically it is part of Africa.
2. Socotra Island
map of Socotra Island (source: KOPP, in WRANIK 1999).
2. Socotra Island, as seen from the US Satellite Gemini VII (Reproduced by kind permission of U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The backbone of the island is formed by the igneous Haghier mountains which entirely dominates the central and eastern part of Socotra, towering above the surrounding limestone plateau. Along the greater part of the south coast extends a gravel- and alluvium covered plain from up to five kilometres in width, while the coastal plain in the north, backed by the dip slopes of the plateau edge limestones, is much more irregular, less barren and interrupted in the east by a number of headlands.
3. The Socotran skyline is dominated by the rugged pinnacles of the Haghier mountains, which rise to over 1500 meters and are usually blanketed in cloud. In the foreground are some of the squat stone houses of the main settlement Hadibo.
4. The coastal plains vary considerably in width, in general they are sparsely vegetated and dominated by xeromorphic forms, such as the endemic shrub Croton socotranus (Euphorbiaceae).
5. View to Ras Hawlaf where sand has become banked against the limestone to a height of about 100 m.
6. Estuary near Qadhub with Date palm trees.
7. View to the Noged plain on the south coast of Socotra, with about 60 km the largest unbroken stretch. It is terminated northwards by a precipitous escarpment averaging about 400 m in elevation.
8. The limestone plateau forms the greatest area of the island. It varies in height between 300 and 700 m and is characterised by open deciduous shrubland. In sheltered valleys and mountain areas, the vegetation is more luxuriant. The higher parts of the Haghier are covered by a mosaic of dense thicket, woody herbs, grassland and lichens.
9. Heavy cloud hangs over the pinnacles of the Haghier throughout the year, particularly during the period of the north-east monsoon. Rain together with heavy mists and dew seems to be more common in these higher altitudes, bring much-needed moisture to the organisms living there.
10.Water courses in the mountains. Most of these streams become dry particularly during the south-west monsoon.
11.Stagnant water pool at the Diksam plateau, which serves as a water resource for both people and livestock.
3. Abd al Kuri
to the eastern part of Abd al Kuri.
2. Northern slope of Jabal Hassala or Jabal Saleh (about 600 m). Euphorbia abdelkuri, the most bizarre endemic plant on Abd al Kuri, is standing like green candles. The vegetation on Abd al Kuri and Samha is poor in species as compared with Socotra.
3. View to Helsat Saleh. The population of this second largest island is estimated about 200 to 300. They engage mostly in fishing and trade. There are a few wells on the island, which have all only brackish water.
to the Samha limestone plateau, which rises up to about 770 m.
2. Village on Samha. The population of Samha is estimated about 50, they engage in fishery.
3. There are some, but limited freshwater sources on Samha. One is water streaming from a coastal rock.
1. View from
Samha to Darsa, which is uninhabited
2. The island of Darsa
6. Geology & Biogeography
map of Gondwanaland in the early Mesozoic before fragmentation, with the
position of Socotra (source: MIES, in WRANIK 1999).
2. Geolocical map of Socotra Island based on the work of Kossmat (source: KOPP, in WRANIK 1999).
3. Biogeographical regions. The Archipelago is situated near the cross-roads of three major biogeographical regions. However, at present it is possible to draw only tentative lines delineating the Palaearctic, Ethiopian and Oriental regions.
7. Socotra Explorers
Bayley Balfour (1853-1922).
2. Georg August Schweinfurth (1836-1925).
3. Emil Riebeck (1853-1885).
4. The Bay of Hadibo (SCHWEINFURTH 1925).
5. James Theodore Bent (1852-1897).
6. Henry Ogg Forbes (1851-1932).
7. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant (1863-1924).
8. Franz Kossmat (1871-1938).
9. Oskar Simony (1852-1915).
10.View to the top of the Haghir mountains (from: Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Band 71, 1. Halbband; k.u.k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien 1907. Reproduced by kind permission of the Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften).
11.George Basil Popov (1922-1998).
12.Douglas Botting (b. 1934) in the expedition house in Hadibo, August 1956 (photo: D. Botting, Oxford University Expedition to Socotra).
13.Kenneth Guichard (b. 1914) and John Lavranos (b. 1926), members of the Middle East Command Expedition 1967.
14. Members of the University of Aden Expedition 1982 in the Haghier mountains.
15. Talks were held with mountain dwellers in an effort to gain an understanding of traditional management methods and to explain them the aim of the biosphere project (UNESCO Fact Finding Mission 1993).
16. Members of the Multidisciplinary Expedition 1999 on the way to a base camp in the Haghier mountains.
17. Building of the Socotra Biodiversity Project in Hadibo.
8. Flora & Vegetation
1. The bizarre
tree succulents Adenium and Dendrosicyos (SCHWEINFURTH 1925).
2. The pachycaul tree Dendrosicyos socotranus found on the coastal plain and rocky limestone slopes, has a bare, tapering chalky-white trunk up to 1 m wide and growth up to 6 m. The fruits hanging from it branches look like small cucumbers, but are inedible. The endemic species, which has also been recorded for Samha, is the only tree member of the cucumber family and can be considered as an example of gigantism that may evolve under the absence of tall herbivores.
3. The endemic subspecies Adenium obesum sokotranum is the largest form with a more swollen and upright stem than its relatives. These swollen bottle-shaped trunks keep the trees supplied with water during the summer droughts. The bizarre-looking "desert rose" is common in open deciduous shrubland of the coastal plains and low inland hills. Most parts of the plant are poisonous, but the leaves are occasionally browsed by goats.
4. One of the most famous botanical curiosities is the dragon's blood tree Dracaena cinnabari (Agavaceae), which is restricted to the zones of submontane thicket and montane grassland (at around 500 m and above). Mature trees are tall, up to 8 m and can not be mistaken for any other. Diksam, in the centre of the island, is probably the best example of Dracaena cinnabari woodland. However seedlings or young trees are restricted to inaccessible sides of cliffs or rocks, so it can be supposed that young seedlings are overgrazed by the livestock.
5. Mountain dweller with a ball of red resin. Although it no longer has a commercial value, cinnabar is an important resource for the local people. They use it to cure stomach problems, dye wool, glue pottery, freshen breath and decorate pottery.
6. Boswellia sp. (Burseraceae). There are perhaps eight species of Boswellia on Socotra, some still to be described.
7. Aloe perryi (Aloaceae). There are two or three endemic, and related species of Aloe on Socotra. While Aloe squarrosa is distinctive and confined to a few cliffs near to Qalansiyah, is A. forbesii very similar to A. perryi, and probably only an ecotype. A. perryi is scattered throughout the island, and common particularly on the limestone plateau. Aloe is used by the islanders as a purgative and is still exported in small quantities.
8. Caralluma socotrana is a colourful endemic asclepiad (Asclepiadaceae). The plant is protected from the grazing livestock by bitterly substances. Its flowers have a decaying smell and are attractive for a number of beetles and flies.
at Homhil after a period of about one year. The difference between the vegetation
in and out of this testing area gives an impressive idea on the intensity of
grazing. The greater number of livestock graze freely without any restriction,
only sheep are actively herded. The actual livestock numbers seem to be already
clearly at the maximum levels that water and vegetation can support. As yet
there was no practicable way to provide supplementary fodder and water during
the summer time, so drought and diseases, sometimes epidemic, continued to provide
a control on livestock numbers. If livestock in future are supported by an artificial
water supply and the importation of supplementary food and increase in number,
or even if a disruption of the complicated patterns of seasonal livestock movement
occurs, it can be expected that the present fragile equilibrium between vegetation,
man and livestock will be destroyed very quickly. The vegetation plays also
a key role in holding the soil onto the slopes and reducing the surface run
off of water. Therefore any removal of the vegetation cover, which could also
be forced by a less strict control of the higher demand of wood for various
purposes (heating, cooking requirements, fuel for the manufacture of lime, building
material), would result in accelerated soil erosion and the loss of surface
water through increased run-off rates creating a dangerous, downward spiral
for the island and its biota as well.
5. Socotra cattle.
7. Suncus etruscus (SAVI, 1822) (Pigmy shrew). Very little is known of the biology and the ecological needs of this small mammal, which seems to be versatile in habitats.
8. Rhinopoma hardwickii GRAY, 1831 (Lesser Mouse-tailed bat) in a cave in Hadibo. The name Rhinopoma means "nose-lid", an obvious peculiarity of this species. Another distinct character is the long mouse-like tail.
9. Rattus rattus ( LINNAEUS, 1758) (Black or House Rat). Both Muridae are common, but rarely seen.
10.Mus musculus LINNAEUS, 1758 (House Mouse) in Hadibo.
11.Viverricula indica (DESMAREST, 1817), the Lesser Indian Civet Cat. The species, which belongs to the mongoose family (Viverridae) is widely distributed throughout central and southern Asia, southern China and the Sunda Islands, it was introduced to Madagascar, the Comoro islands, Zanzibar and Socotra. On Socotra it seems to be common, but is rarely seen. As food it takes small vertebrates, arthropods and fruits.
12. The "Wild cats" in the mountains are feral descendants of domestic cats.
13.Dolphins are common in the coastal waters of Socotra, and occasionally dead specimens can be found washed ashore.
Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber LINNAEUS, 1758) at a lagoon near
Gubbah (passage visitor)
2. Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea LINNAEUS, 1758) at an estuary in Hadibo (passage migrant)
3. Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus (LINNAEUS, 1758)) and Sooty-Gull (Larus hemprichii (BRUCH)) at Qalansiyah. The wader is a passage visitor, while the gull is a common non-breeding visitor.
4. Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus (LINNAEUS, 1758)), Hadibo plain. It is a common passage migrant and presumably also a passage visitor.
5. Palm Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis (LINNAEUS, 1766)) in Hadibo. It is a common breeding resident, often recorded around habitations.
6. Lichtenstein's-Sandgrouse (Pterocles lichtensteinii (TEMMINCK, 1825)). The resident breeder, which is well camouflaged, occurs usually in small groups.
7. A Buzzard (Buteo buteo ssp.) caged in Hadibo. The systematic position of this endemic and isolated resident is still unclear and requires further study.
8. Juvenile Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus).
9. Adult Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus).
10. Egyptian Vultures feeding on the Hadibo shore.
11. Indian House Crow (Corvus splendens VIEILLOT), Hadibo. Four specimens of the Indian House Crow were observed in autumn 1997 in Hadibo for the first time. The people said, that a sailor brought a greater number of them on purpose from Aden to "bad the island". Despite if this is true or not, it should be borne in mind, that the same species increased its population in Aden from "a few" in the 1950's to such a huge population by the 1980's (estimations between 50 000 to 2 million specimens; ASH 1984), that the crow was finally declared a "national problem" in the former South Yemen.
12. Female Somali Starling Onychognathus blythii (HARTLAUB, 1881) at Samha.
13.O. blythii feeding around grazing cattle at Diksam. The Somali Starling is a resident breeder on Socotra, Abd al Kuri and Samha, it also occurs in northern Somalia, northern Etiopia and Eritrea. The sexes differ and are easy to distinguish.
14.Male Sokotra Sparrow (Passer insularis SCLATER & HARTLAUB, 1881), Samha. This endemic resident breeder is widespread and common on Socotra, Samha and Abd al Kuri (P. insularis hemileucus). Nesting seems to occur throughout the year.
15. Methods of bird trapping on Socotra. The gum-like resin of the tree Euphorbia socotrana is used for the preparation of lime-twigs.
16. Methods of bird trapping on Socotra. Net-trap on the shore of Qalansiyah.
17. Methods of bird trapping on Socotra. Cage-trap with ripe dates as bait, Hadibo.
Pristurus sokotranus PARKER, 1938.
Known only from Socotra.
2. Gekkonidae. Pristurus abdelkuri ARNOLD, 1986. Known from Abd al Kuri and Socotra.
3. Gekkonidae. Pristurus guichardi ARNOLD, 1986. Known only from Socotra.
4. Gekkonidae. Pristurus obsti RÖSLER & WRANIK, 1999. Known only from Socotra.
5. Gekkonidae. Pristurus samhaensis RÖSLER & WRANIK, 1999. Known from Samha and Darsa.
6. Gekkonidae. In response to conspecifics and observers the semaphore geckoes (P. sokotranus, P. abdelkuri, P. samhaensis) performed the following signals, usually in the same order and each motion repeated on the average three to four times :
- raising of the whole body as far from the ground as possible
- the tail is slightly curved, raised upwards, held stiff and moved up and down (photo)
- the tail is moved back to the ground and wagged from side to side.
7. Gekkonidae. Pristurus insignis BLANFORD, 1881. Known only from Socotra.
8. Gekkonidae. Pristurus insignoides ARNOLD, 1986. Known only from Socotra.
9. Gekkonidae. Habitat of Pristurus insignoides.
10. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus flaviviridis RÜPPELL, 1835. Non-endemic.
11. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus turcicus (LINNAEUS, 1758). Non-endemic.
12. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus homoeolepis BLANFORD, 1881. Non-endemic. Recorded from Socotra, Samha and Abd al Kuri.
13. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus pumilio BOULENGER, 1903. Known only from Socotra.
14. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus granti BOULENGER, 1899. Known only from Socotra.
15. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus dracaenacolus RÖSLER & WRANIK, 1999. Known only from Socotra.
16. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus forbesii BOULENGER, 1899. Known only from Abd al Kuri.
17. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus oxyrhinus BOULENGER, 1899. Known only from Abd al Kuri.
18. Gekkonidae. Hemidactylus sp. (aff. H. turcicus). A specimen unusual in size (about 150 mm) and habit, recorded by Rösler 1999. Its status needs further studies.
19. Gekkonidae. Haemodracon riebeckii (PETERS, 1882). A couple near the entrance of a hole in a dragon's blood tree at Diksam. The specimens on Samha need further studies to clarify their status.
20. Gekkonidae. Haemodracon trachyrhinus (BOULENGER, 1899). Known only from Socotra.
21. Lacertidae. Mesalina balfouri BLANFORD, 1881.The lizard was recorded from Socotra, Samha, Darsa and Abd al Kuri. It needs further studies to clarify the status of speciation, however there seems to be a distinct difference between the Mesalina population on Abd al Kuri and those from the other islands.
22. Scincidae. Mabuya socotrana (PETERS, 1882). The species is known from Socotra, Samha, Darsa and Abd al Kuri.
23. Scincidae. Head of Mabuya socotrana.
24. Scincidae. Young form of Mabuya socotrana.
25. Scincidae. Parachalcides socotranus BOULENGER, 1899. Known only from Socotra.
26. Chamaeleonidae. A couple of Chamaeleo monachus GRAY, 1864. Known only from Socotra.
27. Trogonophidae. Pachycalamus brevis GÜNTHER, 1881. Known only from Socotra.
28. Typhlopidae. Typhlops socotranus BOULENGER, 1893. Known only from Socotra.
29. Leptotyphlopidae. Leptotyphlops sp. (BOULENGER, 1899). Known only from Socotra. They can easily distinguished from Typhlops by the arrangement of the head shields, while the three Leptotyphlops forms are quite similar in their characters, in range and habits, and therefore more difficult to distinguish in the field. Known only from Socotra.
30. Colubridae. Coluber socotrae (GÜNTHER, 1881). Known from Socotra, Darsa and Samha.
31. Colubridae. Coluber socotrae, Darsa.
32. Colubridae. Ditypophis vivax (GÜNTHER, 1881) (Socotra, Diksam). The genus Ditypophis is represented by a single species endemic to Socotra.
33. Chelonidae. Dead marine turtle on Abd al Kuri. The capture of marine turtles as well as the collection of turtle eggs are still a traditional means of providing supplementary food for the people, especially during the summer monsoon when fishing is difficult.
1. Male specimen
of Aphanius dispar (RÜPPELL,
2. Stream in the mountains with Aphanius dispar.
insects. Thysanura are widely distributed
and very common under stones, boulders or leaf-litter (Abd al Kuri, not yet
2. Odonata, Zygoptera. Male specimen of Enallagma granti (MCLACHLAN, 1903) which is so far the only known endemic damselfly from Socotra. It is considered as a primitive member of its genus.
3. Odonata, Zygoptera. Enallagma granti, mating and depositing og eggs.
4. Odonata, Zygoptera. Enallagma granti, hatching of an adult.
5. Odonata, Zygoptera. Enallagma nigridorsum (SELYS, 1876) male specimen .
6. Odonata, Zygoptera. Ischnura senegalensis (RAMBUR, 1842) male specimen.
7. Odonata, Zygoptera. Ceriagrion glabrum (BURMEISTER, 1839).
8. Odonata, Anisoptera. Diplacodes lefebvrei (RAMBUR, 1842).
9. Odonata, Anisoptera. Orthetrum chrysostigma (BURMEISTER, 1839).
10. Odonata, Anisoptera. Orthetrum sabina (DRURY, 1773).
11. Odonata, Anisoptera. Macrodiplax cora (KAUP IN BRAUER, 1867).
12. Odonata, Anisoptera. Trithemis arteriosa (BURMEISTER, 1839).
13. Odonata, Anisoptera. Pantala flavescens (FABRICIUS, 1798).
14. Odonata, Anisoptera. Crocothemis erythraea (BRULLE, 1832).
15. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Locust invasion on Socotra Island in winter 1953. Flying locusts in the Haghier (photo: POPOV).
16. Saltatoria, Ensifera. Pachysmopoda abbreviata (TASCHENBERG, 1883)
17. Saltatoria, Ensifera. Ruspolia basiguttata (BOLIVAR) (Tettigoniidae).
18. Saltatoria, Ensifera. Glomeremus pileatus (KRAUSS, 1902) (Gryllacrididae).
19. Saltatoria, Ensifera. Gryllotalpa africana (PALISOT) (Gryllotalpidae).
20. Saltatoria, Ensifera. Acheta rufopicta UVAROV, 1957 (Gryllidae).
21. Saltatoria, Ensifera. Oecanthus chopardi UVAROV, 1957 (Gryllidae).
22. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Socotrella monstrosa POPOV, 1957.
23. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Phaulotypus cf. insularis BURR, 1899 (Thericleidae).
24. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Physemophorus sokotranus (BURR, 1898). A distinct character of P. sokotranus is the small cylindrical tubercle on the first tergite which projects between the wings.
25. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Pyrgomorpha conica tereticornis (BRULLE, 1840) (Pyrgomorphidae). According to POPOV (1997) two taxa occur on the archipelago. One is the endemic subspecies P. conica kurii HSIUNG & KEVAN, 1975, which is restricted to Abd al Kuri, while the specimens on Socotra are much closer to P. c. tereticornis.
26. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Dioscoridus depressus POPOV, 1957.
27. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Acorypha bimaculata (KRAUSS, 1902) (Acrididae).
28. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Diabolocatantops axillaris (THUNBERG, 1815) (Acrididae).
29. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Sphingonotus turkanae UVAROV.
30. Saltatoria, Caelifera. Truxalis viridifasciata (KRAUSS, 1902).
31. Mantodea. Teddia dioscoris BURR, 1899. Recorded on Socotra, Samha and Darsa.
32. Mantodea. Empusa simonyi KRAUSS, 1902.
33. Dermaptera. Labidura riparia (PALLAS, 1773).
34. Blattodea. Free living cockroach from the mountains, not yet identified.
35. Isoptera. Conical clay mound, plain east of Hadibo (Amitermes socotrensis).
36. Isoptera. Procryptotermes dioscurae (Isoptera).
37. Embioptera. Oligotoma saundersii, a widespread "weed" species
38. Heteroptera, Reduviidae. A Reduviidae, not yet identified. The "assassin bugs" stalk other insects, on which they prey.
39. Heteroptera, Rhopalidae. Leptocoris bahram (KIRKALDY, 1899).
40. Heteroptera, Lygaeidae. Spilostethus pandurus (SCOPOLI, 1763).
41. Heteroptera, Notonectidae. Anisops debilis socotrensis BROWN, 1956.
42. Heteroptera, Veliidae. Rhagovelia infernalis socotrensis BROWN, 1956.
43. Heteroptera, Mesoveliidae. Mesovelia vittigera HORVATH, 1895.
44. Heteroptera, Corixidae. Sigara lateralis (LEACH).
45. Homoptera. The large cicada on the photo is still undescribed. It was collected by Guichard in 1967 and is stored in the British Museum of Natural History, London.
46. Homoptera. Exuviae of a large cicada .
47. Homoptera. Aphis nerii (Aphididae) .
48. Coleoptera, Cicindelidae. Myriochile melancholica (FABRICIUS, 1798).
49. Coleoptera, Cicindelidae. Lophyrida aulica (DEJEAN, 1831).
50. Coleoptera, Cicindelidae. Socotrana labroturrita CASSOLA & WRANIK, 1998.
51. Coleoptera, Carabidae. Pheropsophus cf. africanus (DEJEAN, 1825).
52. Coleoptera, Carabidae. Calosoma chlorostictum (DEJEAN, 1831).
53. Coleoptera, Carabidae. Tetragonoderus flavovittatus WATERHOUSE, 1881.
54. Coleoptera, Dytiscidae. Cybister africanus tripunctatus CASTELNAU, 1834.
55. Coleoptera, Gyrinidae. Dineutes aereus KLUG, 1834.
56. Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Histeromorphus plicatus KRAATZ, 1865.
57. Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Opatrum costiferum WATERHOUSE, 1881.
58. Coleoptera, Meloidae. Meloe trapeziderus GAHAN, 1903.
59. Coleoptera, Buprestidae. Julodis clouei BUQUET, 1843.
60. Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae. Cheironitis socotranus GAHAN, 1900.
61. Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae. Male Oryctes vicinus GAHAN, 1900.
62. Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Mallodon arabicum BUQUET, 1843.
63. Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Piazomias vermiculosus WATERHOUSE, 1881.
64. Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. Cone-shaped pits of antlion larvae (Socotra, Noged).
65. Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. Antlion.
66. Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. Morter alternans (BRULLE, 1840).
67. Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. Palpares angustus (MCLACHLAN, 1898).
68. Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. Palpares angustus (MCLACHLAN, 1898).
69. Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. Echthromyrmex insularis KIMMINS, 1960.
70. Neuroptera, Nemopteridae. Josandreou pusilla (TASCHENBERG, 1883). (leg. Guichard)
71. Neuroptera, Nemopteridae. Parasicyoptera guichardi TJEDER, 1974. (leg. Guichard)
72. Hymenoptera, Bembicidae. Belonogaster saussurei KIRBY, 1881.
73. Hymenoptera, Sphecidae. Sphex satanas KOHL, 1906.
74. Hymenoptera, Apidae. Xylocopa sp.
75. Hymenoptera, Sphecidae. Sceliphron spirifex LINNAEUS, 1758.
76. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Nest of Camponotus hova.
77. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Camponotus hova FOREL, 1891.
78. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Lepisiota spinisquama (KUTZNETSOV-UGAMSKY, 1929).
79. Diptera, Culicidae. Anopheles sp. on a wall at Hadibo.
80. Diptera, Oestridae. Oestrus ovis LINNAEUS, 1758.
81. Diptera, Calliphoridae. Blowflies.
82. Diptera, Bombylidae. Bee Fly.
83. Diptera, Asilidae. Robberflies.
84. Siphonaptera. Synosternus pallidus (TASCHENBERG, 1880).
85. Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Acraea neobule socotrana REBEL, 1906.
86. Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Byblia anvatara boydi DIXEY, 1898.
87. Lepidoptera, Papilionidae. Papilio demodocus bennetti DIXEY, 1898.
88. Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Junonia oenone (LINNAEUS, 1758).
89. Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Charaxes candiope velox (GRANT, 1899).
90. Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Charaxes balfouri BUTLER, 1889.
91. Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Danaus chrysippus (LINNAEUS, 1764)
92. Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Cerocala socotrensis HAMPSON, 1899.
14. Chilopoda & Diplopoda
Scolopendridae. Scolopendra valida
2. Chilopoda, Mecistocephalidae. Head and first tergites of Mecistocephalus insularis (H. LUCAS, 1863).
3. Chilopoda, Scolopendridae. Rhysida longicornis POCOCK, 1891.
4. Chilopoda, Scutigeridae. Not yet identified.
5. Diplopoda, Oxydesmidae. Fontariopsis sp.. Pocock (1903b) distinguished three endemic species, but further studies are necessary to verify their status.
Gecarcinidae. Cardisoma carnifex
(HERBST, 1796), habitat with caves in the ground (edge of an estuary near Hadibo).
2. Decapoda, Gecarcinidae. Cardisoma carnifex (HERBST, 1796).
3. Decapoda, Potamidae. Potamon socotrensis (HILGENDORF, 1883).
4. Decapoda, Potamidae. Stream in the mountains with Potamon socotrensis.
5. Decapoda, Potamidae. A female Potamon socotrensis carrying young crabs under its abdomen.
6. Decapoda, Potamidae. A young Potamon socotrensis released from the maternal abdominal brood pouch.
7. Decapoda, Potamidae. Socotra pseudocardiosoma CUMBERLIDGE & WRANIK (in press), male specimen climbing on a rock in the highlands of Socotra.
8. Decapoda, Potamidae. Adult specimen of S. pseudocardiosoma (above) are considerably larger than adults of P. socotrensis (below). The largest specimen of Potamon socotrensis which we recorded had a carapace breadth of 39 mm, while in S. pseudocardisoma it was up to 90 mm.
9. Decapoda, Potamidae. A third species of freshwater crab, which seems to be restricted to the western part of the Noged plain.
10. Isopoda. Socotroniscus sacciformis FERRARA & TAITI, 1996.
11. Isopoda. An amphibian living form of the genus Ligia, not yet identified.
12. Isopoda. The large amphibian Ligia cf. pigmentata (Noged, waterfall area).
Hottentotta socotrensis (POCOCK,
2. Scorpiones.Orthochirus bicolor insularis (POCOCK, 1899).
3. Scorpiones. Hemiscorpius socotranus POCOCK, 1899.
4. Scorpiones. Hemiscorpius sp. (Samha & Darsa)
5. Scorpiones. Heteronebo sp..
6. Solifugae. Gluviopsis balfouri (POCOCK, 1895).
7. Opiliones. Hinzuanius flaviventris (POCOCK, 1903).
8. Amblypygi, recorded in a cave on the Diksam plateau, not yet identified.
9. Pseudoscorpiones. Not yet identified.
10. Araneae, Theraphosidae. Monocentropus balfouri (POCOCK, 1897).
11. Araneae, Barychelidae. Atrophothele socotrana POCOCK.
12. Araneae, Lycosidae. Pardosa cf. spilota POCOCK, 1903.
13. Araneae, Theridiidae. Latrodectus sp.
14. Araneae, Araneidae. Argiope sector (FORSKAL, 1775).
15. Araneae, Tetragnathidae. Nephila sumptuosa GERSTÄCKER, 1873.
16. Araneae, Araneidae. Gasteracantha sanguinolenta C.L. KOCH, 1845.
17. Acari, Ioxidae. Hyalomma truncatum KOCH, 1844.
18. Acari, Ioxidae. Boophilus annulatus (SAY, 1821).
19. Acari, Ioxidae. A goat infested with Boophilus annulatus.
Pomatiasidae. Otopoma sp. extended
from the shell and with calcareous operculum. The eyes are, as typical in Prosobranchia,
at the base of the tentacles.
2. Gastropoda, Pomatiasidae. Head and foot of Lithidion sp. (Samha).
3. Gastropoda, Subulinidae. The Pulmonate Riebeckia sokotorana (MARTENS, 1881), which can grow to 90 mm.
4. Gastropoda, Cerastidae. A colony of snails aestivating on the stem of Adenium.
5. Gastropoda, Cerastidae. Living specimen of Achatinelloides cf. socotrensis (PFEIFFER, 1845).
6. Gastropoda, Cerastidae. A living specimen of Achatinelloides hadibuensis (GODWIN-AUSTEN, 1881). As typical for Pulmonate land snails the eyes are at the tips of the tentacles.
18. Marine biota
near Gubbah in 1967. Mangrove (Avicennia marina) occur as small local
belts and patches along inlets on the south-west coast and parts of the western
half of the north coast with very tall trees, standing up to almost 8 to 10
metres high. However in comparison to the zones marked as mangrove on older
maps a greater number of areas seems to be already destroyed.
2. The same area in 1999.
3. Coral assemblage with the giant bivalve Tridacna maxima (RÖDING, 1798) (Bivalvia / Tridacnidae) in the waters east of Hadibo.
4. Corals of the genus Acropora, which are widespread in the waters of the archipelago (Dilicia).
5. Bivalvia, Pteriidae. Fisherman with shells of Pinctada magaritifera (LINNAEUS, 1758).
6. Gastropoda, Haliotidae. Haliotis pustulata REEVE, 1846.
19. The people of Socotra
of a 'Dash 7' at the airport in Mouri. In summer 1999 commercial air services
with jet carriers have started, by use of a new concrete airstrip.
2. Arrival of a new Four wheel drive. Several thousand Socotrans are believed to live outside the island. They are increasingly sending back cars and building materials. The growth in the number of vehicles used on the island is one of the more visible consequences of "opening" and a powerful stimulant to additional change.
3. Part of the new sea port near Hawlaf east of Hadibo. The construction was started without any environmental impact assessment.
4. Part of the road from Hadibo to the airport.
5. The small limewashed houses in Hadibo appear very similar. The streets are covered with a layer of sand and the droppings of many generations of goats. In the foreground, part of the water pipe is visible. Only periurban houses in Hadibo use simple covered pit-latrines inside their households. Defecation in the open is commonly practiced.
6. While pollution and solid waste disposal is not a major problem on the island at present, signs of this problem are starting to manifest inside Hadibo. Polluted area in the surrounding of a Generator in Hadibo.
7. Traditional forms of fishing.
8. Fishermen in Hadibo with shark.
9. Fishermen in the market in Hadibo.
10. View to the main street in Hadibo, a trader with a cupboard store.
11. Hadibo, view to the mosque.
12. School in Hadibo. On Socotra there are about 25 schools, but there are great differences between those located on the coastal villages and others servicing remote mountain areas. The overall percentage of illiteracy is estimated to be 60-70 %.
13. Women making baskets.
14. Musicians in Hadibo.
15. Making of local Pots decorated with Dragon's blood.
16. Gathering of dates. Date palms grow along the bank of the streams, near the shore and at other suitable places. The dates are stored in the skin of goats.
17. Garden in Hadibo. Cultivation is still on a small scale
18. Residence in the mountains.
19. Rubbing noses is the traditional form of welcome in the mountains.
20. Deiqyub, with enormous stalactites and stalagmites, is perhaps the most impressive cave on the island. It is located in the escarpment overlooking the southern Noged plain.
21. Mountain dweller. They walk barefooted on the razor-edged stones without difficulty, and in the field they often appear from nowhere.
22. Children in the mountains collecting wood (Diksam).
23. School in the mountains.
24. Home made toys.
25.Women with child in a cave in the mountains.
26. Traditional way of making fire.
27. Mountain dweller.